Componenta Zonei Metropolitane - Municipiul Oradea

 Short history. Human presence within Oradea dates back to the late Middle Paleolithic (50000-35000 BC). In the early twentieth century (1909), in the former brick factory of Knapp, a deposit of bones with 17 fragments dating from the Upper Paleolithic was discovered. This discovery convinced the researchers of the presence of Homo sapiens on the present territory of Oradea.

The development of the settlement depended on the construction of a monastery in Oradea and a fortress that would surround it. King Ladislau set here a bishop, and approximately a century after his death he was buried in the monastery that was constructed on his order.

Oradea was documented for the first time in 1113, in a Diploma of Benedictine Abbey from Zobor . Svatopluk Moravian prince repeated attacks, as the ally of the German Emperor Henry IV, on a large number of settlements in the Valley Vahului and Nitra (in Slovakia today) were the context in which the troponin Oradea - called Varadinum was used for the first time.

Over time Oradea has passed through many important events, whether the great Mongol invasion of the years 1241-1242 when part of the invading army headed toward the fortress of Oradea that will put to a siege, and then conquered and burned, or the quick incursion to the city of the Ottoman army on February 7th , 1474 when troops of Ali Oglu Malcovici attacked Oradea taking advantage of the fact that Matei Corvin was out of the country. The XVI century is not calmer, Oradea is marked by the battle of Mohacs in 1526 after which the Turkish troops achieved a smashing victory over the troops belonging to the Hungarian kingdom (King Louis II himself will fall on the battlefield).

A milestone in the evolution of the city is the setting up of Principality of Transylvania into an independent principality. Faced with the choice to be rallying to Hungary's Habsburg of Ferdinand or to the new principality, Oradea declares its initial attachment to the Habsburgs, than finally, after many delays, decides in 1544 for the annexation to Transylvania.



In the mid nineteenth century the unification of the four towns surrounding settlements around the Oradea Fortress (Oradea-Olosig, Oradea-Oraşul Nou, Oradea-Subcetate şi Oradea-Velenţa) under one administration takes place. In the next century, the outbreak of World War II will bring serious harm that people of Oradea. Because of diplomatic pressure against Romania in the summer of 1940, the north-western part of Transylvania (including Oradea) is ceded to Hungary. Four years later, however, the events of the summer of 1944 have created favorable conditions for Romania to fight against Germany and north-western part of Transylvania is freed. Thus, on March 11, 1944 throughout the north-western part of Transylvania Soviet military administration was established and on March 9th 1945, after the establishment of the Groza government the romanian local administration was restored.