Sînmartin

 

Sinmartin

Evidence of a human community within the village of Sînmartin existed since the Neolithic times. With houses dug into the ground, polished tools made of stone and bone, painted and engraved clay pots, people have settled here because of favorable conditions, but also the warm waters whose discovery seems to have coincided with the establishment of the first human settlements.

After transforming Dacia into an imperial province, the traces of life become more numerous, making up the evidence of a massive presence in the region. Thus, near the village Haieu isolated findings of Roman coins were accounted. In the surroundings other Roman objects were found and such as a bronze torch from a Roman cup, a well burned ceramic pipe, pots and other tools.

After a thorough research of the archeological findings, integrating part of the historical sources, it was concluded that in this area several human settlements lived from different historical periods: the people of Neolithic, Bronze Age people, early Hallstatul, pre-Romans, free Dacians, Romans, Ostrogoths, and Slavic tribes.

Existence of a community is documented in Sînmartin starting with the early second millennium, thermal waters near the city of Oradea is mentioned in a diploma of the Vatican in the years 1214-1215. Sînmartin name appears in writings from the thirteenth century and is still linked to the use of thermal water, which locals have found uses for since ancient times. Thus, in 1228 is mention of a mill that was fed from the river Peta. The installation worked throughout the year due to warm waters, not freezing in the winter.

Two centuries later a diploma shows that the name Sînmartin is used also for the area of the hot springs in Back then the baths were under the administration of the Premonstranţiilor Monks from Sînmartin. The first construction designed for treatment with thermal waters is constructed in 1711. The building is constructed exactly on top of the spring called „Baia lui Felix”. This is the origin of the thermal resort we call today „Băile Felix”, the Felix spring mentioned earlier being used even today for treatment purposes.

An interesting document that presents important data about Haieu such as, location, surroundings number of houses, is the map of the settlement made in 1773. In fact that year marked the creation of maps for many settlements in Bihor county, with a double purpose: in order to implement the urbarial reglementations in 1769 (which was put into force in Bihor only in 1772) and for trying to organize the villages and concentrate them on an area as small as possible.

Another village linked to the thermal baths was Sînmartin, mentioned earlier in connection with Haievio Abbey as the residence of Felix. It is not known exactly why this city was totally destroyed in 1566. Repopulation was later done, as the village came under the administration of the Premonstratensilor Order of Monks which until 1767 had established the on the plains of Sînmartin a butchery and a pub. Stefan Szenky colonized, then, the Swabians and founded the village. The village has developed slowly although there are some buildings for officials.

Sînmartin is located in the North – West Development Region, in the central – western part of Bihor County. Sînmartin as a member of Oradea Metropolitan Area, is located in the southern part. The village is bordered to the north by Oradea to the east Osorhei, to the south Hidişelu de Sus and to the west Nojorid.

Sînmartin is at a distance of 6 km from the city of Oradea and 21 kilometers from the Romanian border with Hungary (Borș customs point).

Sînmartin comprises several villages, clustered mostly in the north of the village. Most villages were developed as neighborhoods, being practically attached to each other. From a demographic perspective, Sînmartin village – administrative seat - has the highest share at the local level. Other villages of Sînmartin are: Rontău, Cihei, Haieu, Băile 1 Mai, Băile Felix, Cordău, Betfia.

The main access to Sînmartin is done through the european road E79 (DN76), that links the city of Oradea to the city of Deva. In Oradea, E79 meets E 60 (Bucureşti – Braşov – Sibiu – Cluj-Napoca - Borş) and E 671 (Timişoara – Arad – Oradea – Satu Mare). The access to the villages of Sînmartin being made through secondary loca roads :

  • DC 59 Sînmartin - Haieu – Belfia;
  • DC 80 Băile 1 Mai – Băile Felix;
  • DC 63 Sînmartin – Cihei;
  • DC 64 Sînmartin – Cordău

In Sînmartin there are three railway stations belonging to CFR: Rontău, Băile Felix and Cordău. Through these settlements the non-electric rail passes that connects Sînmartin with Oradea, Holod, city of Beiuş and the city of Vascău.

The distance between Sînmartin and Oradea International Airport is about 11 km.The total area of Sînmartin is of 61.75 km2, representing 8.2% of the total area of Oradea Metropolitan Area.

Sînmartin is located in northwestern part of Miersigului Plain - part of Crișului Plain - the contact area of the western hills descending from Pădurea Craiului Mountains. Miersig Plain is part of the higher plains of the West Plains, alongside Carei, Ierului, Miersig, Cermei, Aradului, Vingăi şi Gătaiei. The elevated plains formed through a process of accumulation and erosion due to its vicinity to the Crișul Repede river. Although arranged in terraces the overall inclination has a peak of 200 m, near the hills, to 110 m towards the lower plains.

The territory is formed by formations of the cuaternal period, Mesozoic, that sit on a crystalline foundation. The Mesozoic that make up a unified package to a certain thickness (of about 3500 m) being made up in general by limestone deposits. According to the existing data the oldest layers that are on top of the crystalline foundation date from the Mesozoic. They have s stripe appearance directed West- South-West, East North East. Over these overlapped Paleogene and Neogene deposits which can be found throughout the Pannonian basin.

Deciduous forest located within Sînmartin consists of different species such as: oak, flasks, sky, ash, hornbeam. The shrub layer is well represented by species such as hawthorn, bloody horn, hazel, privet and others. The grass layer is represented by: rooster tail, Stânişoara, and other.

In the meadows the predominant plants are gramineous and vegetables, the step grass lands being very common in the area. Spontaneous vegetation that grows on the plateau includes white daisies, blue chicory, yellow candles, red poppies and autumn crocus.

On the artificial lake from Băile Felix resort different species of lotus were acclimatized from different exotic countries: Nelurnuncifera (originally from India and Pakistan), Nymphea zanzibarena (Africa), Aeibornia crasepis (Asia and Africa). In the same spot the Nymphea lotus termalis species was brought from Băile 1 Mai. The scientific research made on this flower, locally called lotus, water lily, brought the conclusion that this plant is a relic from the Tertiary flora. It survived the glaciation of quaternal period and was preserved because of the conditions necessary for its vital cycle offered the thermal water. Loving the thermal water of at least 20 ° C, but not more than 41 ° C and the sapropelic mud and peat, it lives only a small portion of the Peta stream and the thermal lake.

The fauna of Sînmartin is not to varied and rich being a typical plain fauna. Common mammals are rodents: hamster, ground squirrels, muskrat, and rabbit. Among existing birds the following can be mentioned: quail, pheasant, pitpalacul, starling, skylark, and martin.

From a climate perspective, Sînmartin is characterized by a moderate continental climate, being situated at the boundary between two climate areas: the climate of steppe and the climate of the hilly area. Average annual air temperature is 10 to 11°C. Sînmartin village is located in an area that receives air masses from the influence of several parts. Thus, in the winter period the arctic air masses are present, while in summer often the presence of tropical air masses is felt.

The land mass of Sînmartin totals an area of 61,75 km2, of which the agricultural lands cover an area of 55%. The forest lands are significant about 20% of the land mass being covered by forest lands.
An important climatic resource at the local level are thermal waters. These are renowned nationally and internationally for the beneficial effects for conditions as: inflammatory rheumatic diseases, rheumatic diseases, rheumatic diseases, post-traumatic disorders, peripheral neurological disorders, central neurological disorders, gynecological disorders and associated diseases.

In Sînmartin there are two Nature 2000 protected sites: ROSCI0008 Betfia (covering Hideşelu de Sus, Oşorhei, Sînmartin) and ROSCI0098 Peţea Lake (covering Oradea and Sînmartin).

Betfia site is known for its Pannonian loess grassland habitat. Betfia pothole is an ideal habitat for the species of bats (greater horseshoe bat, big-eared bat), but for many species of amphibians and reptiles of national interest. "Craterul of Betfia" has a depth of 86 meters, in steps. Vertical shaft surface is measuring 54 meters, which makes it a bold challenge for climbing enthusiasts.

strategii-dezvoltare-sinmartin

Among the tourist attractions and nature reserve a major focus point is "Stream Petea" in Baile 1 Mai. Here Thermal waters maintain for thousands of years the most representative species of local flora: water lily. Pețea stream comes from a place called "Gypsy Eye" and collects water from several hot springs. On top of the richest stream a Lake was formed with an area of 4,100 square meters. With a temperature of 25-30 °C, its waters are a perfect environment for Nymphaea Lotus Thermalis.